Web Links – Local Associations
Web Links – International Associations
Glossary of Metalcasting Terms
World Foundry Organisation (WFO) Congress 23 to 27 September 2018
It’s been a quarter of a century since we last had the privilege of hosting members of the World Foundry Organisation in Poland. This has been a crucial period in the history of our country and our industry. So it comes as no surprise that we are thrilled that in September 2018 we will once again have the pleasure of greeting you in Krakow and other Polish cities. This time, WFO sessions will take place in a modern convention centre with a view of the Royal Castle in Krakow. They will be accompanied by fascinating exhibitions, including international trade fairs, and Polish industry and research centres will also be represented. We are certain that the Congress will also be a time for cultural and aesthetic experiences. Krakow is waiting for participants from all over the world, and the organisers will do their best to make the occasion a memorable display of the country’s hospitality.
Aluminium 2018 – 9 to 11 October 2018
ALUMINIUM is the world’s leading trade show and B2B-platform for the aluminium industry and its main applications. It is the must-attend event for the aluminium industry and a powerful sourcing platform by uniting producers, processors and also end-consumers as well as technology suppliers. ALUMINIUM is showcasing international innovations from the entire value chain. More than 1 000 exhibitors at ALUMINIUM form the complete industry’s value chain: From raw material along semi-finished and finished products up to machines, structural works, facilities, supplies and surface treatment. Once again the ALUMINIUM 2018 is accompanied by our comprehensive supporting programme. Starting with the ALUMINIUM Conference which is part of the trade fair since many years: Current topics concerning the aluminium industry are presented and discussed. The conference is organised by the the German Aluminium Association (Gesamtverband der Aluminiumindustrie e.V.).
NADCA Die Casting Congress & Exposition 15 to 17 October 2018
The Die Casting Congress & Exposition will be held October 15-17, 2018, at the Indiana Convention Center in Indianapolis, IN. This event will include three days of Congress sessions given by experts from around the world. In addition to the Congress sessions, this exposition show will feature more than 120 exhibitors, the International Die Casting Design Competition and the Die Casting Industry Awards Luncheon. This event brings together die casters from various parts of North America to provide them with a sneak preview of the latest innovations made in this field at a platform that caters exclusively to their requirements.
GIFA 2019 25 to 29 June 2019
At the world’s leading trade fair for casting technology, you will once again find everything which motivates professional casting specialists and decision-makers: Whether casting facilities, machinery or equipment for rigging out a foundry: If you want to be actively involved in shaping the cast markets of tomorrow, then GIFA 2019 is a must. GIFA is the most important trade fair for foundry technology in the world. In 2015 size, competence and rating by visitors and exhibitors received top marks. The GIFA is the platform for excellent Business activities and is the indicator for the innovations which will orientate the future.
The Aluminium Federation of South Africa (AFSA) is the voice of and the gateway to, the South African Aluminium industry. AFSA’s members are companies operating in any of the various sectors of the industry including aluminium metal production, both primary and secondary, semi-fabrication including extruded and rolled products, architectural, building and construction, fabrication and general engineering including welding and bonding covering a variety of market sectors such as packaging, castings, surface finishing and suppliers to the industry.
For further details visit www.afsa.org.za
The Machine Tool Merchants’ Association of South Africa (MTMA), founded in November 1956, is a trade organisation representing the importers of machine tools throughout South Africa. The association functions in the basic manner of most national trade associations. Annually the MTMA elects five non-salaried officers from among its membership to act as chairman and vice-chairman and committee members. Principally these officers are owners or top management personnel within member companies. None of these elected officers is active on a day-to-day basis in the association, however it is their function to provide basic direction and establishment of policies and priorities for the year ahead for the MTMA.
Membership is restricted to companies importing new machine tools and which have an infrastructure to support the stocking, marketing and after-sales-service of machine tools.
For further details visit www.mtma.co.za
The National Association of Automotive Component and Allied Manufacturers (NAACAM) represents the interests of automotive component suppliers in South Africa, and has more than 170 member companies. Around 45% of component production is sold to local vehicle assemblers, 30% is exported, mainly to overseas assemblers, and 25% goes to the local spare parts market.
Naacam members employ almost 50 000 people and recorded turnover of more than R55 billion in 2012.
For further details visit www.naacam.co.za
The Southern Africa Stainless Steel Development Association (SASSDA) has since 1964 been involved in increasing the awareness and use of stainless steel in Southern Africa. The organisation provides a platform for SASSDA members to collectively promote the sustainable growth and development of the industry with the main emphasis on stainless steel converted within the South African economy.
SASSDA also provides a comprehensive list of services to its member base including technical information and advice, education, training and skills upgrading, a range of publications and marketing, industry and business development support. SASSDA members are grouped into one of several industry sectors, architectural, building and construction, castings, consumer products, fabricators, importers, tube and pipe manufacturers, service centres, stockists and welding.
For further details visit www.sassda.co.za
The South African Institute of Foundrymen (SAIF) is the voice of the South African foundry industry. Its mission is to advance the services and technology related to the manufacturing and use of metal castings through education and training, skills development and the dissemination of information and research, thereby creating growth and job opportunities.
The SAIF also facilitates the meeting of stakeholders engaged in the metalcasting and allied industries, to correspond and exchange ideas to the science and practice of the casting of metals, to promote and facilitate research, in the practice of foundry operations. It also represents the South African foundry industry in common challenges and initiatives with government, municipal and other local authorities, state owned organisations, educational institutions and the standards and specifications authorities on any matter within its mandate.
For further details visit www.foundries.org.za
The Toolmaking Association of South Africa (TASA) was established in 2004 as a representative body for the South African tool, die and mould (TDM) making industry in South Africa. TASA is constituted as a national body with representation from all provinces that have significant tool, die and mould making activities. Representation is through the TASA provincial structures.
TASA was a driving force in the mobilisation of the National Tooling Initiative (NTI) and will remain an important and strong stakeholder in the process of the full establishment of the NTI which has as a national objective namely, the revitalisation and the rehabilitation of the South African tool, die and mould making industry through manufacturing growth and technical skills development.
For further details visit www.ntipweb.co.za
The Southern African Institute of Welding (SAIW) is a non-profit technical organisation dedicated to furthering standards in welding-fabrication and related technologies. Established in 1948, it is a founder member of the International Institute of Welding (IIW). SAIW provides training programmes, consultancy and industry support services. Based in Johannesburg, with branches in Cape Town and Durban, they are active throughout Southern African and also have experience further afield – predominantly in Central Africa, the Indian Ocean Islands and the United Arab Emirates.
SAIW offers a wide range of courses in welding technology and Non Destructive Testing (NDT) at its Johannesburg training school and also conducts training at venues around South Africa and in other countries. An Authorised National Body (ANB) of IIW since 2003, SAIW offers the full range of IIW qualifications – Engineer, Technologist, Specialist, Practitioner, Welder and Inspector. SAIW also has strong affiliations with leading training organisations such as the Universities of the Witwatersrand and Pretoria.
For further details visit www.saiw.co.za
The American Foundry Society traces its roots to 1896 when the American Foundrymen’s Association was formed. The Association was subsequently named The American Foundrymen’s Society, and later the name was shortened to the American Foundry Society, sometimes shortened to AFS. The society is considered an international organisation consisting of 9,000 members across 48 countries, organised into 48 local chapters and 34 student chapters in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
The AFS promotes the interests of the foundry industry to the federal government and consists of a professional staff and volunteer committee structure. Activities of the AFS include committee work, education, organisation of regional and national conventions and other work in support of the metalcasting industry.
For further details visit www.afsinc.org
AMAFOND is the Italian association of companies producing machinery and equipment, furnaces and products for the foundry industry. Its 80 member companies provide machinery used in the manufacturing of everything from automobile engines and components to domestic appliances. AMAFOND credits the “Italian approach” to business—characterised by extra customer care and stronger personal relationships—as one of the reasons its member companies attract worldwide customers.
For further details visit www.amafond.com
Assofond is the Italian Foundries’ Association. Founded in 1948, it is a member of Confindustria (Italian Manufacturers’ Association) and its main purpose is to support the industrial foundry sector in its relations with external bodies and agencies, with economic, political and social organisations, either domestic, from the European Community, or international.
For further details visit www.assofond.it
The European Foundry Association (CAEF) is the umbrella organisation of the European foundry industry. Established in 1953 CAEF deals with economic, technical, legal, and social issues. Its membership includes the national foundry associations from 21 European countries.
For further details visit www.caef.org
The main objective of the Ductile Iron Society (DIS) is to advance the technology, art, science of ductile iron production and to disseminate all such information to the members. Such an objective is achieved by:
Research programs aimed at improving production technology, solving long standing production problems, and providing better manufacturing economies.
Exchange of technical and production knowledge through Society meetings, plant visits issuing various reports and bulletins covering research and new technology.
The Institute of Cast Metals Engineers (ICME) is a British professional engineering institution that was founded as the British Foundrymen’s Association, in 1904. It was given a Royal Charter on 25 November 1921. Branches were set up in industrial centres around the UK. A South African Branch was formed in 1937 and the Australian Branch in 1953.
In October 2000 the name was changed by amendment to the Royal Charter from the Institute of British Foundrymen to the Institute of Cast Metals Engineers. Membership of ICME is open to anyone employed in the castings industry or with an interest in casting. A range of grades is available to suit all levels of knowledge and experience.
For further details visit www.icme.org.uk
The North American Die Casting Association (NADCA) is an outstanding source of information for the die casting industry. Effective suppliers databases, calendars, chapter news, an OEM section, and government/environmental items round out this simple but very effective association.
NADCA is committed to promoting industry awareness, domestic growth in the global marketplace and member exposure. Headquartered in Wheeling, IL, the association is comprised of both individual members and corporate members located throughout United States, Canada and Mexico.
For further details visit www.diecasting.org
The World Foundry Organisation was established in 1927 with the main objective of facilitating technical cooperation between member associations.
At present there are some 34 member associations, which include the biggest worldwide casting producers and consumers.
One of the main objectives of the WFO is the global interchange of technical knowledge and the active international cooperation between its country members by holding an annual World Foundry Forum and every two years a World Foundry Congress. The WFO is a neutral body that represents the collective needs of the members on a global stage.
For further details visit www.thewfo.com
This Glossary of Metalcasting Terms provides the casting designer and purchaser with practical definitions of common metalcasting phrases and terms. Source American Foundry Society.
AQL Acceptable Quality Level– A quality level established on a prearranged system of inspection using samples selected at random.
As-cast condition– Casting without subsequent heat treatment.
Backing sand– The bulk of the sand in the flask. The sand compacted on top of the facing sand that covers the pattern.
Binder– The bonding agent used as an additive to mould or core sand to impart strength or plasticity in a “green” or dry state.
Burn-on sand– Sand adhering to the surface of the casting that is extremely difficult to remove.
Chaplet– A small metal insert or spacer used in moulds to provide core support during the casting process.
Charge– A given weight of metal introduced into the furnace.
Chill– A metal insert in the sand mould used to produce local chilling and equalize rate of solidification throughout the casting.
Cleaning– Removal of runners, risers, flash, surplus metal and sand from a casting.
Cold shut– A surface imperfection due to unsatisfactory fusion of metal.
Cope– The top half of a horizontally parted mould.
Core- A sand or metal insert in a mould to shape the interior of the casting or that part of the casting that cannot be shaped by the pattern.
Core assembly– An assembly made from a number of cores.
Corebox– The wooden, metal or plastic tool used to produce cores.
Coreprint– A projection on a pattern that leaves an impression in the mould for supporting the core.
Core wash– A liquid suspension of a refractory material applied to cores and dried (intended to improve surface of casting).
Coreless induction furnace– An electric induction furnace in which water-cooled coils that carry electrical current surround the charge material. Magnetic fields are established, and voltage is induced by a flow of electric current. The resistance of the charge metal to the current flow produces sufficient heat to melt the metal.
Crush– The displacement of sand at mould joints.
Cupola– A cylindrical, straight shaft furnace (usually lined with refractories) for melting metal in direct contact with coke by forcing air under pressure through openings near its base.
Cure– To harden.
Die– A metal form used as a permanent mould for die casting or for a wax pattern in investment casting.
Dowel– A pin of various types used in the parting surface of parted patterns or dies to assure correct registry.
Draft– Taper on the vertical sides of a pattern or corebox that permits the core or sand mould to be removed without distorting or tearing of the sand.
Drag– The bottom half of a horizontally parted mould.
Ejector pins– Movable pins in pattern dies that help remove patterns from the die.
Facing sand– The sand used to surround the pattern that produces the surface in contact with the molten metal.
Feeder– Sometimes referred to as a “riser,” it is part of the gating system that forms the reservoir of molten metal necessary to compensate for losses due to shrinkage as the metal solidifies.
Finish allowance– The amount of stock left on the surface of a casting for machining.
Finish mark– A symbol (f, fl, f2, etc.) appearing on the line of a drawing that represents the edge of the surface of the casting to be machined or otherwise finished.
Flask– A rigid metal or wood frame used to hold the sand of which a mould is formed and usually consisting of two parts, cope and drag.
Foundry returns– Metal (of known composition) in the form of gates, sprues, runners, risers and scrapped castings returned to the furnace for remelting.
Gas porosity– A condition existing in a casting caused by the trapping of gas in the molten metal or by mould gases evolved during the pouring of the casting.
Gate (ingate)- The portion of the runner where the molten metal enters the mould cavity.
Green sand– Moist clay-bonded moulding sand.
Heat– A single furnace charge of metal.
Heat treatment- A combination of heating and cooling operations timed and applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state in a manner that will produce desired mechanical properties.
Hotbox process– A resin-based process that uses heated metal coreboxes to produce cores.
Hot tear– Irregularly shaped fracture in a casting resulting from stresses set up by steep thermal gradients within the casting during solidification.
Inclusions– Particles of slag, refractory materials, sand or deoxidation products trapped in the casting during pouring solidification.
Investment casting– A pattern casting process in which a wax or thermoplastic pattern is used. The pattern is invested (surrounded) by a refractory slurry. After the mould is dry, the pattern is melted or burned out of the mould cavity, and molten metal is poured into the resulting cavity.
Ladle– A container used to transfer molten metal from the furnace to the mould.
Locating pad– A projection on a casting that helps maintain alignment of the casting for machining operations.
Locating surface– A casting surface to be used as a basis for measurement in making secondary machining operations.
Master pattern– The object from which a die can be made; generally a metal model of the part to be cast with process shrinkage added.
Mechanical properties– Those properties of a material that reveal the elastic and inelastic properties when force is applied. This term should not be used interchangeably with “physical properties.”
Metal lot- A master heat that has been approved for casting and given a sequential number by the foundry.
Mould– Normally consists of a top and bottom form, made of sand, metal or any other investment material. It contains the cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a casting of definite shape.
Mould cavity– The impression in a mould produced by removal of the pattern. It is filled with molten metal to form the casting.
Mould coating– A liquid suspension of a refractory material applied to cores and dried (intended to improve surface of casting).
Nobake process– Moulds/cores produced with a resin-bonded air-setting sand. Also known as the airset process because moulds are left to harden under normal atmospheric conditions.
Parting line– The line showing the separation of the two halves of the mould.
Pattern– The wood, metal, foam or plastic shape used to form the cavity in the sand. A pattern may consist of one or many impressions and would normally be mounted on a board or plate complete with a runner system.
Pattern draft– The taper allowed on the vertical faces of a pattern to permit easy withdrawal of the pattern from the mould or die.
Pattern layout- Full-sized drawing of a pattern showing its arrangement and structural features.
Patternmaker’s shrinkage– The shrinkage allowance made on all patterns to compensate for the change in dimensions as the solidified casting cools in the mould from freezing temperature of the metal to room temperature. The pattern is made larger by the amount of shrinkage characteristic of the particular metal in the casting and the amount of resulting contraction to be encountered.
Permeability– The property of a mould material to allow passage of mould/core gases during the pouring of molten metal.
Physical properties– Properties of matter such as density, electrical and thermal conductivity, expansion and specific heat. This term should not be used interchangeably with “mechanical properties”.
Pig iron– Blocks of iron to a known metal chemical analysis that are used for melting (with suitable additions of scrap, etc.) for the production of ferrous castings.
Pilot or sample casting– A casting made from a pattern produced in a production die to check the accuracy of dimensions and quality of castings that will be made.
Porosity– Holes in the casting due to: gases trapped in the mould, the reaction of molten metal with moisture in the moulding sand, or the imperfect fusion of chaplets with molten metal.
Recovery rate– Ratio of the number of saleable parts to the total number of parts manufactured, expressed as a percentage.
Refractory Heat– Resistant ceramic material.
Reject rate– Ratio of the number of parts scrapped to the total number of parts manufactured, expressed as a percentage.
Riser– (See feeder.)
Runner system or gating– The set of channels in a mould through which molten metal is poured to fill the mould cavity. The system normally consists of a vertical section (downgate or sprue) to the point where it joins the mould cavity (gate) and leads from the mould cavity through vertical channels (risers or feeders).
Sand inclusions- Cavities or surface imperfections on a casting caused by sand washing into the mould cavity.
Scrap– (a) Any scrap metal melted (usually with suitable additions of pig iron or ingots) to produce castings; (b) reject castings.
Shakeout The process of separating the solidified casting from the mould material.
Shrinkage– Contraction of metal in the mould during solidification. The term also is used to describe the casting defect, such as shrinkage cavity, which results from poor design, insufficient metal feed or inadequate feeding.
Slag– A fused nonmetallic material that protects molten metal from the air and extracts certain impurities from the melt.
Slag inclusions- Casting surface imperfections similar to sand inclusions but containing impurities from the charge materials, silica and clay eroded from the refractory lining, and ash from the fuel during the melting process. May also originate from metal-refractory reactions occurring in the ladle during pouring of the casting.
Slurry– A flowable mixture of refractory particles suspended in a liquid.
Sodium silicate/CO2 process– Moulding sand is mixed with sodium silicate and the mould is gassed with CO2 gas to produce a hard mould or core.
Sprue (downsprue-downgate)– The channel, usually vertical, that the molten metal enters.
Test bar– Standard specimen bar designed to permit determination of mechanical properties of the metal from which it was poured.
Test lug– A lug cast as a part of the casting and later removed for testing purposes.
Vent– An opening or passage in a mould or core to facilitate escape of gases when the mould is poured